Understanding Perianal Conditions

Perianal conditions encompass a spectrum of medical problems that impact the region surrounding the anus. These issues can lead to discomfort, pain, and itching, ranging from mild to severe. The perianal area is vulnerable to various challenges due to its exposure to fecal matter and the pressure exerted during bowel movements. Despite their diverse origins, these conditions share the common trait of being localized around the anal region.

Common Perianal Problems


Hemorrhoids, also known as piles, are swollen and inflamed veins located in the lower rectum or anus. They can be internal, within the rectum, or external, forming under the skin around the anus. Although not life-threatening, hemorrhoids can significantly impact one’s quality of life due to discomfort and pain.


Hemorrhoids develop when blood vessels in the rectum and anus become enlarged and engorged. Common triggers include straining during bowel movements, chronic constipation or diarrhea, prolonged sitting or standing, pregnancy, and obesity. These factors increase pressure on blood vessels, causing them to swell.


Mild cases of hemorrhoids can often be managed through dietary adjustments, increased fiber intake, and avoiding straining during bowel movements. Over-the-counter creams, ointments, or suppositories containing hydrocortisone, vaseline, zinc, etc, may provide temporary relief. For more severe cases, surgical excision (hemorrhoidectomy) and advanced techniques like laser therapy and ultrasound devices (THD & HAL RAR) are available at Burjeel Medical City.

Anal Fissure:

An anal fissure is a small tear in the lining of the anal canal, causing intense pain during and after bowel movements.


Anal fissures typically result from hard or large stools stretching the anal opening. Chronic constipation, diarrhea, or straining during bowel movements are common triggers.


Mild fissures often heal with increased fiber intake, stool softeners, and topical creams. Medical intervention may involve topical anesthetics, botulinum toxin injections, or surgical procedures (namely, lateral internal sphincterotomy) if the fissure becomes chronic.

Perianal Hematoma (external thrombosed hemorrhoid):

A perianal hematoma is a painful condition where blood accumulates under the skin surrounding the anus, presenting as a tender lump.


Perianal hematomas can result from ruptured blood vessels due to trauma, straining during bowel movements, or excessive pressure.


Most perianal hematomas resolve on their own within 3-5 days. Pain relief can be achieved through warm sitz baths and over-the-counter medications. For thrombosed hematomas, medical assistance may involve incision and drainage by a healthcare professional.

Perianal Fistula:

A perianal fistula is an abnormal tunnel between the anal canal and the skin around the anus, often stemming from a previous perianal abscess.


Perianal fistulas can result from inadequately treated anal abscesses or conditions like Crohn’s disease.


Treatment includes antibiotics to control infection and surgical procedures to remove the fistula tract (fistulotomy). In high fistulas involving the external sphincter, a seton may be needed (it consists of several threads of silk or rubber that are placed through the fistula tract and that will require periodical tightening in the clinic after the operation). Advanced techniques like trans-sphincteric fistula ligation and advancement flaps can be employed based on the severity of the fistula.

Perianal Abscess:

A perianal abscess is a painful collection of pus around the anus, usually resulting from an infection in the anal glands.


Bacterial infections in anal glands or crypts are common causes of perianal abscesses.


The primary treatment involves draining the abscess to relieve pain, followed by antibiotics to control infection. Warm sitz baths and proper hygiene can aid healing.

At Burjeel Medical City, we offer a comprehensive range of treatments for perianal conditions, from conservative measures to advanced surgical techniques. Our dedicated team of experts ensures that you receive the best care possible, prioritizing your comfort, health, and well-being.